Archaeological monuments reaching back to more than 3500 years can be found all over Kos Island. Numerous castles, ancient temples, old theatres and the Ancient Market remain throughout the centuries witnessing the glory and the fame of Kos.
The most brilliant years of the island was in the Hellenistic period around 300 B.C.
In 336, Kos was conquered by Alexander the Great, then came under the dominance of the Roman Empire and it has been the most famous centre of wine and textiles during that era.
In 1315, the island failed under the hegemony of St. John Knights until 1513, the year when the Ottomans take the control of Kos. The island remained under the Ottoman rule for many years until the First World War.